Transformation of normal human cells in the absence of telomerase activation

Cancer Cell. 2002 Nov;2(5):401-13. doi: 10.1016/s1535-6108(02)00183-6.


Our knowledge of the transformation process has emerged largely from studies of primary rodent cells and animal models. However, numerous attempts to transform human cells using oncogene combinations that are effective in rodents have proven unsuccessful. These findings strongly argue for the study of homologous experimental systems. Here we report that the combined expression of adenovirus E1A, Ha-RasV12, and MDM2 is sufficient to convert a normal human cell into a cancer cell. Notably, transformation did not require telomerase activation. Therefore, we provide evidence that activation of telomere maintenance strategies is not an obligate characteristic of tumorigenic human cells.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics*
  • Cell Transformation, Viral / genetics*
  • Cell Transplantation
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Chromosome Aberrations
  • Enzyme Activation
  • Fibroblasts / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Mice, Nude
  • Retroviridae / genetics
  • Telomerase / physiology
  • Telomere / physiology


  • Telomerase