Renal transplantation restores a patient's endogenous renal function. The benefits of this restoration are especially dramatic in children. However, transplantation is a complex and expensive therapy which, when successful, requires consistent adherence to a complex regimen of drug therapy and clinical follow-up. Transplant medications need to be taken for a lifetime. Whilst very effective, immunosuppressant medications can also cause a number of side-effects and require daily multi-dose schedules. Teenagers, in particular, have problems adhering to these regimens and weighing the consequences of non-compliance. Approaches to improving teenagers' compliance must address both the special circumstances of adolescence and the broad, general problem of post-transplant non-compliance.