Variations in the calpain-10 gene (CAPN10) have been identified among Mexican-Americans, and an at-risk haplotype combination (112/121) defined by three polymorphisms, UCSNP-43, -19, and -63, confers increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Here we examine the three polymorphisms in 1,594 Scandinavian subjects, including 409 type 2 diabetic patients, 200 glucose-tolerant control subjects, 322 young healthy subjects, 206 glucose-tolerant offspring of diabetic patients, and 457 glucose-tolerant 70-year-old men. The frequency of the 112/121 combination was not significantly different in 409 type 2 diabetic subjects compared with 200 glucose-tolerant control subjects (0.06 vs. 0.05; odds ratio 1.32 [95% CI 0.58-3.30]). In glucose-tolerant subjects, neither the single-nucleotide polymorphisms individually nor the 112/121 combination were associated with alterations in plasma glucose, serum insulin, or serum C-peptide levels at fasting or during an oral glucose tolerance test, estimates of insulin sensitivity, or glucose-induced insulin secretion. In conclusion, the frequency of the 112/121 at-risk haplotype of CAPN10 is low among Scandinavians and we were unable to demonstrate significant associations between the CAPN10 variants and type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, or impaired insulin secretion.