In 1998, the National Institute for Health (NIH) organized a consensus conference about the rehabilitation of persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The conference results are based on an extensive bibliography from the scientific literature and presentations at the conference. The focus of this conference was the evaluation of rehabilitative measures for the cognitive and behavioral consequences of TBI, and the extent to which specific interventions are supported by existing evidence. Specifically, the conference considered the following aspects and their implications for rehabilitation: the epidemiology of TBI in the United States, the consequences in terms of pathophysiology, impairments, functional limitations, disabilities, societal limitations, and economic impact, the mechanisms underlying functional recovery following TBI, the common therapeutic interventions for the cognitive and behavioral sequelae of TBI, and the models for comprehensive coordinated multi-disciplinary rehabilitation. Based on the answers to these questions, the conference tried to give recommendations regarding rehabilitation practices for people with TBI, and identified areas where further research is needed.