Novel adjuvant systems

Curr Drug Targets Infect Disord. 2001 Nov;1(3):263-71. doi: 10.2174/1568005014605991.


Vaccination remains the single most valuable tool in the prevention of infectious disease. Nevertheless, there exists a need to improve the performance of existing vaccines such that fewer boosts are needed or to develop novel vaccines. For the development of effective vaccines for humans, a great need exists for safe and effective adjuvants. A number of novel adjuvants have been reported in recent years including: i) bacterial toxins such as cholera toxin, CT, and the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin, LT; ii) less toxic derivatives of CT and LT; iii) endogenous human immunomodulators, such as IL-2, IL-12, GM-CSF; iv) hormones; v) lipopeptides; vi) saponins, such as QS-21; vii) synthetic oligonucleotides containing CpG motifs (CpG ODN); viii) lipid 'A derivatives, such as monophosphoryl lipid A, MPL, and ix) muramyl dipeptide (MDP) derivatives. Herein, we will review recent findings using these novel adjuvant systems.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine / administration & dosage
  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage*
  • Animals
  • Bacterial Toxins / administration & dosage
  • Calcitriol / administration & dosage
  • Cytokines / administration & dosage
  • Cytoskeletal Proteins / administration & dosage
  • Drug Combinations
  • Humans
  • Lipid A / administration & dosage
  • Lipid A / analogs & derivatives*
  • Oligodeoxyribonucleotides / administration & dosage
  • Saponins / administration & dosage
  • Vaccines / administration & dosage*


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Bacterial Toxins
  • CPG-oligonucleotide
  • Cytokines
  • Cytoskeletal Proteins
  • Drug Combinations
  • Lipid A
  • Oligodeoxyribonucleotides
  • Saponins
  • Vaccines
  • detox adjuvant
  • Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine
  • Calcitriol