Objective: The objective of this study was to examine a possible relationship between smoking and fibromyalgia features among 233 female patients with fibromyalgia syndrome.
Methods: Data on clinical and psychological features were collected by a protocol. Smoking status was evaluated by a question inquiring about the packs of cigarettes smoked per day. Differences between the smokers and non-smokers were tested by Mann Whitney U test. To adjust data for age and education, a partial correlation test was used. A p value of < or = 0.01 was accepted as the level of significance.
Results: Fifty-one patients (21.9%) smoked. After adjustment for age and education, significantly positive relationship was found between smoking and pain, patient global severity, functional disability, and numbness. There was no difference between smokers and non-smokers for fatigue, morning fatigue, sleep difficulties, tender points (TP), depression, anxiety and stress.
Conclusions: Smokers reported significantly more pain, numbness, patient global severity, and functional difficulties than non-smokers. There was no significant difference between smokers and non-smokers for fatigue and TP.