Classification and surgical management of orbital fractures: experience with 111 orbital reconstructions

J Craniofac Surg. 2002 Nov;13(6):726-37; discussion 738. doi: 10.1097/00001665-200211000-00002.


Orbital skeletal injuries are frequently associated with other significant injuries and require a substantial surgical effort to correct. The use of a unified classification of orbital injury may better predict the surgical effort required to correct such injuries and help with future comparisons of results. In an attempt to summarize the principles of reconstruction of the orbital skeleton following trauma and introduce a unified classification system for orbital injuries, a retrospective review of all consecutive orbital reconstructions in a tertiary care teaching hospital was conducted. The nasoethmoidal region was involved in 32%, the zygomatic complex in 50%, and the frontal region in 28% of orbital fractures. Of the orbital walls, four walls were involved in 5%, three walls in 17%, two walls in 30%, and one wall in 53%. Associated ocular and neurologic injury was encountered in 33% and 57% of patients, respectively. Regions of fixation ranged from one to eight. Bone grafts were used in 20% and titanium mesh in 34% of the orbits. In general, the authors recommend an aggressive approach to orbital injuries, addressing all associated injuries simultaneously.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Brain Injuries / etiology
  • Brain Injuries / surgery
  • Craniotomy / instrumentation
  • Craniotomy / methods*
  • Eye Injuries / etiology
  • Eye Injuries / surgery
  • Female
  • Fracture Fixation, Internal / instrumentation
  • Fracture Fixation, Internal / methods*
  • Fractures, Comminuted / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Orbit / surgery*
  • Orbital Fractures / classification*
  • Orbital Fractures / complications
  • Orbital Fractures / pathology
  • Orbital Fractures / surgery*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Trauma Severity Indices
  • Wounds, Gunshot / surgery
  • Zygomatic Fractures / etiology
  • Zygomatic Fractures / surgery