Transient expression of wild-type human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in HEK293T cells resulted in a profound decrease in the amplitude of volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying Cl- channel (VSOR) current without changing the single-channel amplitude. This effect was not mimicked by expression of the DeltaF508 mutant of CFTR, which did not reach the plasma membrane. The VSOR regulation by CFTR was not affected by G551D mutation at first nucleotide-binding domain (NBD1), which is known to impair CFTR interaction with the outwardly rectifying chloride channel, ORCC, epithelial amiloride-sensitive Na-channel, ENaC, and renal potassium channel, ROMK2. The CFTR-VSOR interaction was insensitive to the deletion mutation, DeltaTRL, which is known to impair CFTR-PDZ domain binding. In contrast, the G1349D mutant, which impairs ATP binding at NBD2, effectively abolished the down-regulatory effect of CFTR. Furthermore, the K1250M mutation at the Walker A motif and the D1370N mutation at the Walker B motif, both known to impair ATP hydrolysis at NBD2, completely abolished the VSOR regulation by CFTR. Thus, we conclude that an ATP-hydrolysable conformation of NBD2 is essential for the regulation of the VSOR by the CFTR protein, and that VSOR is a first channel regulated by CFTR through its NBD2.