An outcome study of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest using the Utstein template--a Japanese experience

Resuscitation. 2002 Dec;55(3):241-6. doi: 10.1016/s0300-9572(02)00207-1.


Publication of the Utstein style template has made it possible to evaluate and compare national, regional, and hospital based Emergency Medical Services. This research was a national investigation to present outcome data for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients in Japan. 3029 OHCA patients who were transported to 10 Emergency and Critical Care Medical Center from November 1997 to April 1999 were recorded according to the Utstein style and the outcome evaluated by logistic regression analysis. Among 3029 OHCA patients, 109 were found dead. The remaining 2920 patients who underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by emergency medical technicians (EMT) were included in this study. Among these patients, 1294 were considered of primary cardiac origin patients by the EMT and 722 of these patients suffered a witnessed cardiac arrest. Bystander CPR were performed in 28.4% of these witnessed patients and the discharge rate was 3.5% overall and 11.4% in witnessed VF/VT. Outcome analysis showed that a discharge rate in witnessed primary cardiac arrest was 30% in prehospital resuscitation which was 7.5 times higher than in-hospital emergency room resuscitation groups (4.0%). The longer the interval between an emergency telephone call and defibrillation, the lower the 1 month survival rate, which reached almost 0% at 30 min. Follow up evaluation after discharge revealed that the survival rate rapidly decreased from 24 h to 3 months, then became a plateau in primary cardiac patients was rapidly decreased from 24 h to 1 month, then became a near plateau in non-cardiac origin group. To improve the resuscitation rate in the prehospital phase, a prehospital medical control system should be developed with expansion of on scene techniques by Japanese paramedics such as tracheal intubation, administration of emergency drugs and early defibrillation with standing orders. Education and motivation of first responders will be needed and every effort should be concentrated on improving bystander CPR rate.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study

MeSH terms

  • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation / standards*
  • Electric Countershock
  • Emergency Medical Services / standards*
  • Heart Arrest / mortality
  • Heart Arrest / therapy*
  • Humans
  • Japan / epidemiology
  • Logistic Models
  • Outcome Assessment, Health Care*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Survival Rate