Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) is an important damage tolerance system which rescues cells from severe injuries caused by DNA damage. Specialized low fidelity DNA polymerases in this system synthesize DNA past lesions on the template DNA strand, that replicative DNA polymerases are usually unable to pass through. However, in compensation for cell survival, most polymerases in this system are potentially mutagenic and sometimes introduce mutations in the next generation. In yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae), DNA polymerase zeta, which consists of Rev3 and Rev7 proteins, and Rev1 are known to be involved in most damage-induced and spontaneous mutations. The human homologs of S. cerevisiae REV1, REV3, and REV7 were identified, and it is revealed that the human REV proteins have similar functions to their yeast counterparts, however, a large part of the mechanisms of mutagenesis employing REV proteins are still unclear. Recently, the new findings about REV proteins were reported, which showed that REV7 interacts not only with REV3 but also with REV1 in human and that REV7 is involved in cell cycle control in Xenopus. These findings give us a new point of view for further investigation about REV proteins. Recent studies of REV proteins are summarized and several points are discussed.