Expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, and MMP-1 and their endogenous counterregulators TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 in postmortem brain tissue of Parkinson's disease

Exp Neurol. 2002 Nov;178(1):13-20. doi: 10.1006/exnr.2002.8019.


We investigated the levels and tissue localization of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) in postmortem brain tissue from Parkinson's disease (PD) and age-matched control cases. Using zymography, we found reduced MMP-2 levels in PD cases in the substantia nigra as compared to controls; levels of MMP-2 were not significantly changed in the cortex and the hippocampus. MMP-9 levels were unchanged in the investigated brain regions. Immunohistochemically, MMP-2 was localized primarily in astrocytes and microglia cells, whereas MMP-9 was predominantly neuronal. Levels of TIMP-1, an endogenous tissue inhibitor of MMPs, were significantly elevated in the substantia nigra, but not in the cortex and hippocampus. TIMP-2 levels were unchanged in PD. To investigate whether increased TIMP-1 levels in the substantia nigra might be due to increased MMP-1 expression, we measured MMP-1 levels using Western blots. MMP-1 levels were unchanged in PD cases compared to controls. Together, these data show alterations of MMP-2 and TIMP-1 in the substantia nigra of PD, consistent with the possibility that alterations in MMPs/TIMPs may contribute to disease pathogenesis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Blotting, Western
  • Brain / enzymology*
  • Brain / pathology
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 / metabolism
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / metabolism
  • Matrix Metalloproteinases / metabolism*
  • Parkinson Disease / metabolism*
  • Parkinson Disease / pathology
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 / metabolism*
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2 / metabolism*


  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2
  • Matrix Metalloproteinases
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 1