Mutations of the BRAF protein serine/threonine kinase gene have recently been identified in a variety of human cancers, most notably melanomas. We sought to determine the frequency of BRAF mutations in human lung cancer pathogenesis. Analysis of BRAF sequence from 127 primary human lung adenocarcinomas revealed mutations in two tumor specimens, one in exon 11 (G465V), and a second in exon 15 (L596R). These specimens belong to the same adenocarcinoma subgroup as defined by clustering of gene expression data. BRAF may provide a target for anticancer chemotherapy in a subset of lung adenocarcinoma patients.