The Lineage Decisions of Helper T Cells

Nat Rev Immunol. 2002 Dec;2(12):933-44. doi: 10.1038/nri954.

Abstract

After encountering antigen, helper T (T(H)) cells undergo differentiation to effector cells, which can secrete high levels of interferon-gamma, interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-10 and other immunomodulators. How T(H) cells acquire, and remember, new patterns of gene expression is an area of intensive investigation. The process is remarkably plastic, with cytokines being key regulators. Extrinsic signals seem to be integrated into cell-intrinsic programming, in what is becoming an intriguing story of regulated development. We summarize the latest insights into mechanisms that govern the lineage choices that are made during T(H)-cell responses to foreign pathogens.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / physiology
  • Animals
  • Cytokines / physiology*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • GATA3 Transcription Factor
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Active / genetics
  • Immunologic Memory / genetics
  • Interferon-gamma / biosynthesis
  • Interferon-gamma / genetics
  • Interleukin-10 / biosynthesis
  • Interleukin-10 / genetics
  • Interleukin-10 / physiology
  • Interleukin-4 / immunology
  • Lymphopoiesis*
  • Parasitic Diseases / immunology
  • Signal Transduction
  • T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer / immunology*
  • Th1 Cells / immunology
  • Th2 Cells / immunology
  • Trans-Activators / genetics
  • Transcription, Genetic

Substances

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Cytokines
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • GATA3 Transcription Factor
  • GATA3 protein, human
  • Trans-Activators
  • Interleukin-10
  • Interleukin-4
  • Interferon-gamma