Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a mouse model that serves as an experimental tool for studying the etiology, pathogenesis, as well as new therapeutic approaches of multiple sclerosis (MS). EAE is a polygenic chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the nervous system that involves the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Previous studies have identified multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling different aspects of disease pathogenesis. However, progress in identifying new susceptibility genes outside the MHC locus has been slow. With the advent of new global methods for genetic analysis such as large-scale sequencing, gene expression profiling combined with classic linkage analysis and congenic and physical mapping progress is considerably accelerating. Here we review our preliminary work on the use of gene expression mapping to identify new putative genetic pathways contributing to the pathogenesis of EAE.