Evidence on the value of some current physiotherapeutic practices and the ineffectiveness of others is accumulating. This paper addresses the best evidence available on the efficacy and effectiveness of physiotherapeutic modalities in ankylosing spondylitis. General issues in the assessment of physiotherapy in this disease are briefly discussed. Core sets for assessments are nowadays available. A recent Cochrane review on this topic supports the (at least short-term) positive effects of physiotherapy in particular exercise, in the management of ankylosing spondylitis. Some details of the included studies are provided.