Genetic analysis of the mammalian transforming growth factor-beta superfamily

Endocr Rev. 2002 Dec;23(6):787-823. doi: 10.1210/er.2002-0003.

Abstract

Members of the TGF-beta superfamily, which includes TGF-betas, growth differentiation factors, bone morphogenetic proteins, activins, inhibins, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, are synthesized as prepropeptide precursors and then processed and secreted as homodimers or heterodimers. Most ligands of the family signal through transmembrane serine/threonine kinase receptors and SMAD proteins to regulate cellular functions. Many studies have reported the characterization of knockout and knock-in transgenic mice as well as humans or other mammals with naturally occurring genetic mutations in superfamily members or their regulatory proteins. These investigations have revealed that TGF-beta superfamily ligands, receptors, SMADs, and upstream and downstream regulators function in diverse developmental and physiological pathways. This review attempts to collate and integrate the extensive body of in vivo mammalian studies produced over the last decade.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Activins / genetics
  • Activins / physiology
  • Animals
  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins / genetics
  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins / physiology
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / physiology
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
  • Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor
  • Growth Substances / genetics
  • Growth Substances / physiology
  • Humans
  • Inhibins / genetics
  • Inhibins / physiology
  • Mice
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Nerve Growth Factors / genetics
  • Nerve Growth Factors / physiology
  • Phylogeny
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases*
  • Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta / genetics*
  • Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta / physiology
  • Smad Proteins
  • Trans-Activators / genetics
  • Trans-Activators / physiology
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / genetics*
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / physiology

Substances

  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • GDNF protein, human
  • Gdnf protein, mouse
  • Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor
  • Growth Substances
  • Nerve Growth Factors
  • Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Smad Proteins
  • Trans-Activators
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Activins
  • Inhibins
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases