Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver disease is the leading indication for orthotopic liver transplantation worldwide. Recurrent HCV infection as defined by viremia after transplantation is nearly universal, with histologic evidence of recurrent hepatitis present in the majority. Although short-term survival appears to be similar to that in other causes of liver failure, it has recently been demonstrated that approximately 20-30% of HCV-positive patients develop allograft cirrhosis by 5 years. Therefore, it is possible to define disease outcomes within a relatively short period of follow-up. Identification of patients who are likely to develop progressive HCV-related allograft injury is important to optimize results of current antiviral therapy.