Secretion of the gut hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is stimulated by meal ingestion. The response is rapid, suggesting a stimulatory pathway elicited from the upper gastrointestinal area. In pigs, we have been unable to demonstrate a neural stimulatory pathway, but GLP-1 secretion is regulated by local somatostatin secretion. In search for an endocrine pathway, we studied the effect of a range of concentrations of cholecystokinin octapeptide (26-33) (CCK 8), gastric inhibitory peptide 1-42 (GIP), secretin, motilin, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and the modified amino acid, 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin, 5-HT) on GLP-1 and somatostatin release from isolated perfused segments of porcine ileum.GLP-1 secretion was stimulated by 1 nM CCK 8 and 10 nM GIP, but suppressed by 1 nM motilin and 1 microM 5-HT. Secretin and CGRP had no effect. Somatostatin secretion was stimulated by CCK 8 at 1 and 10 nM, by GIP at 1 and 10 nM and by 10 nM CGRP. Secretin, 5-HT and motilin had no effect on somatostatin secretion. We conclude that CCK 8 and GIP 1-42 stimulated GLP-1 secretion, but only in concentrations greatly exceeding normal postprandial concentrations. Thus, we find it unlikely that endocrine agents from the duodenum regulate GLP-1 secretion in pigs.