The objective of this study was to evaluate the neuropsychiatric effects of the alpha-2a adrenergic agonist guanfacine in children with Tourette syndrome (TS). Twenty-four children with TS participated in a 4-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of guanfacine. Tic severity, neuropsychologic functioning, and parent ratings of behavior were evaluated pre- and post-treatment. The sample had mild tic severity and subtle neuropsychologic dysfunction pretreatment. Post-treatment, patients receiving guanfacine were rated by parents as significantly improved (compared to placebo) on one measure of executive function (parent-rated metacognition). Improvement on tic severity, performance-based neuropsychologic measures, and all other parent ratings were not significantly better than placebo. At a moderate dose and short-term treatment duration, guanfacine did not provide significant neuropsychiatric benefits in this group of children with mild TS.