The effects of shoulder plyometric training on proprioception and selected muscle performance characteristics

J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2002 Nov-Dec;11(6):579-86. doi: 10.1067/mse.2002.127303.


The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of plyometric training of the shoulder internal rotators on proprioception, kinesthesia, and selected muscle performance characteristics in female swimmers. Twenty-four female division I swimmers were evaluated before and after a 6-week plyometric training program. Proprioception and kinesthesia were assessed for internal and external rotation at 0 degrees, 75 degrees, and 90% of the subject's maximum external rotation. The Biodex II was used to assess strength characteristics at 60 degrees /s, 240 degrees /s, and 450 degrees /s. Plyometric training sessions (2 times/week) involved 3 sets of 15 repetitions with a trampoline, weighted balls, and elastic tubing. A 2-way analysis of variance revealed significant improvement (P <.05) in proprioception at 0 degrees moving into external rotation, as well as 75 degrees and 90% moving into both internal and external rotation. Kinesthesia demonstrated significant improvement for all test conditions after plyometric training. Significant gains in selected muscle performance characteristics included time to peak torque (60 degrees /s and 240 degrees /s), amortization time (450 degrees /s), and torque decrement (240 degrees /s). This study suggests that plyometric activities may facilitate neural adaptations that enhance proprioception, kinesthesia, and muscle performance characteristics. Significant neuromuscular benefits may be attained if they are implemented earlier into shoulder rehabilitation programs.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Muscle Contraction
  • Muscle Relaxation / physiology
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiology
  • Physical Education and Training*
  • Probability
  • Proprioception / physiology*
  • Range of Motion, Articular / physiology*
  • Reference Values
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Shoulder Joint / physiology*
  • Swimming / physiology*
  • Task Performance and Analysis