A comparative investigation of protein expression by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was conducted between Bacillus subtilis cultures grown in defined medium under aerobic, anaerobic nitrate respiration, or fermentation conditions. Defined medium specific for either nitrate respiration or fermentation allowed distinction between proteins induced by each individual growth process. Our differential protein profiling analysis between aerobic and anaerobic conditions showed that anaerobic fermentation induced at least 44 proteins and nitrate respiration induced at least 19 proteins compared to aerobic controls. Certain proteins were specifically induced during nitrate respiration or fermentation, while others were induced by both anaerobic processes. Eleven proteins induced by nitrate respiration and/or fermentation were identified by peptide mass matching using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Proteins encoded by feuA, hmp, and ytkD were induced by nitrate respiration. Proteins encoded by pyrR, sucD, trpC, and ywjH were induced by fermentation. Proteins encoded by acuB, pdhC, ydjL, and yvyD were induced by nitrate respiration and fermentation. This proteomic analysis has provided a more complete characterization of B. subtilis anaerobic growth and increased our understanding of its metabolic pathways of nitrate respiration and fermentation.