Background: Little is known about the late effects of juvenile end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on bone integrity. To establish clinical manifestations of metabolic bone disease and bone mineral density (BMD) in young adult patients with juvenile ESRD, we performed a long-term outcome study.
Methods: A cohort was formed of all Dutch patients with onset of ESRD between 1972 and 1992 at age 0 to 14 years, born before 1979. Data were collected by review of medical charts, current history, physical examination, and performing dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) of the lumbar spine and the femoral neck.
Results: Clinical information was retrieved in 247 out of 249 patients. Of all of these patients, 61.4% had severe growth retardation (<-2 SD), 36.8% had clinical symptoms of bone disease, and 17.8% were disabled by bone disease. Growth retardation and clinical bone disease were associated with a long duration of dialysis. DEXA was performed in 140 out of 187 living patients. Mean BMD +/- SD corrected for gender and age (Z score) of the lumbar spine was -2.12 +/- 1.4 and of the femoral neck was -1.77 +/- 1.4. A low lean body mass was associated with a low lumbar spine and a low femoral neck BMD; male gender, physical inactivity and aseptic bone necrosis were associated with a low lumbar spine BMD.
Conclusion: Bone disease is a major clinical problem in young adults with pediatric ESRD. Further follow-up is needed to establish the impact of the low bone mineral densities found in these patients.