A workshop on pediatric preclinical testing, sponsored by the National Cancer Institute and the Children's Oncology Group Phase 1 Consortium, was held on June 26-27, 2001 in Bethesda, Maryland. Drs. Peter Adamson, Peter Houghton, and Malcolm Smith organized and hosted the meeting. There were 20 participants from 12 institutions. The primary objectives of the workshop included: (a) development of a working inventory of available preclinical models (including human tumor xenografts in immunodeficient mice, transgenic and syngeneic tumors, and selected in vitro models), with a basic understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of each as possible components of a preclinical testing program; (b) identification of the key scientific issues related to establishment of a program for preclinical testing of new agents for their applicability to childhood cancers; and (c) identification of the key infrastructure requirements for a program for preclinical testing of new agents for their applicability to childhood cancers. This report is a synthesis of the workshop's presentations and discussions.