Paraoxonase 1 Q192R (PON1-192) polymorphism is associated with reduced lipid peroxidation in R-allele-carrier but not in QQ homozygous elderly subjects on a tomato-rich diet

Eur J Nutr. 2002 Dec;41(6):237-43. doi: 10.1007/s00394-002-0389-8.


Background: The oxidative modification of LDL is considered to play a central role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD). Paraoxonase (PON1) protects LDL from oxidation and may therefore retard the development of atherosclerosis. The PON1-192 polymorphism is associated with diminished PON1 concentrations and an increased risk for CHD in RR-allele subjects.

Aim of the study: To investigate the effect of tomato juice consumption on PON1 activity and other parameters related to oxidative stress in healthy elderly subjects. Furthermore, the PON1-192 genotype has been determined in the volunteers in order to see whether possible treatment effects are related to the PON1-192 polymorphism.

Methods: Fifty elderly subjects were randomly assigned to control (mineral water) or intervention group (tomato juice). Subjects of the tomato juice group consumed daily 330 mL tomato juice for 8 weeks. Antioxidant status was measured as LDL oxidation, plasma malondialdehyde, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and PON1 activity. The PON1-192 polymorphism was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR). Plasma carotenoids were analyzed by HPLC.

Results: Tomato juice consumption reduced LDL-oxidation and improved antioxidant status in R-allele carriers, but not in the QQ genotype group. PON1 activity increased irrespective of the genotype in both, control and intervention group.

Conclusions: The changes in antioxidant status after tomato juice consumption seem to depend on the PON1-192 genotype. Healthy elderly, carrying the R-allele, could specifically reduce their higher cardiovascular risk by changing dietary habits.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Antioxidants / analysis
  • Aryldialkylphosphatase
  • Beverages
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / genetics
  • Carotenoids / administration & dosage
  • Carotenoids / blood
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Esterases / genetics*
  • Esterases / metabolism*
  • Female
  • Gene Frequency
  • Genotype
  • Heterozygote
  • Homozygote
  • Humans
  • Lipid Peroxidation / genetics*
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Lycopene
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Polymorphism, Genetic*
  • Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
  • Solanum lycopersicum* / chemistry
  • beta Carotene / administration & dosage


  • Antioxidants
  • beta Carotene
  • Carotenoids
  • Esterases
  • Aryldialkylphosphatase
  • PON1 protein, human
  • Lycopene