The pilot phase of a longitudinal study of 83 children (response 86%) adopted from Romania is reported; the present status of the children is compared with the past status on the basis of parental recollection. At placement, the average age of the children was 2.9 years; at the time of the interview of the adoptive parents, the average age of the children was 6.8 years. At placement, 67% of the adoptive parents needed professional help, and 10% of the children were infected with Hepatitis B. Only 13% did not show any important psychosocial problems. The number of psychosocial problems reported by the parents at placement predicts 69% of the lag of development observed 4 years later; the age of arrival adds up to 72%. Most problems still exist 4 years after placement; however, no disruptions of the adoption have taken place yet.