Numerous studies have demonstrated that chemokines play an integral role in diseases marked by inflammation. Recently, it has also been shown that chemokines and their receptors are widely expressed in the central nervous system by all types of cells, including neurons. The functions of neuronal chemokine receptors have yet to be fully defined. However, there are indications that neuronal chemokine receptors play an integral role in the development of the nervous system, in the regulation of neuronal excitability and in the signal transduction pathways that regulate neuronal survival. This review explores these topics and discusses the overall impact that chemokines may have on neuronal function.