Efficacy of treatment for convergence insufficiency using vision therapy

Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2002 Nov;22(6):565-71. doi: 10.1046/j.1475-1313.2002.00080.x.


Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if vision therapy (VT), as practised within the constraints of UK optometric practice, employing graded routine eye exercises, is as an effective method for treatment of convergence insufficiency (CI) as previously published data suggest. The study also evaluates the associated symptoms before and after therapy.

Methods: As many optometrists diagnose CI solely on the basis of near point of convergence (NPC) and treat only when symptoms are present (Letourneau et al., 1979; Rouse et al., 1997), in this study CI was defined as NPC of 10 cm or greater (either with or without the presence of asthenopic symptoms for near work) accompanied by exophoria greater at near than at distance. The effect of treatment by optometric vision therapy (OVT) on the NPC and number of symptoms was investigated for 92 patients by retrospectively reviewing the clinical records. Success was defined as the restoration of NPC to normal values and significant reduction in the presenting symptoms.

Results: The effect of treatment on the NPC was shown to be highly significant (t = 14.61, p < 0.001). Although treatment times were slightly longer, the success rates were higher than reported by other authors. Post-treatment values for NPC were: <10 cm (98.9%), <8.5 cm (95.7%) and <6.5 cm (80.4%). Longer treatment times were noted for patients who complained that the text appeared to move (chi2, p = 0.007).

Conclusion: Vision therapy is an effective method for treatment of CI.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Asthenopia / etiology
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Eye Movements / physiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Ocular Motility Disorders / complications
  • Ocular Motility Disorders / physiopathology
  • Ocular Motility Disorders / therapy*
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Visual Perception / physiology