An increased incidence of fusidic acid-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains causing superficial infections among children in Sweden has been noted since the mid-1990s. Based on routine susceptibility testing data from 10 laboratories representing 8/21 Swedish counties during 1990-2001, the increase was first demonstrated in southern Sweden and subsequently became apparent throughout the country. Epidemiological typing using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of recent isolates of fusidic acid-resistant S. aureus from 11 laboratories representing 8/21 Swedish counties revealed a high degree of similarity of band patterns, indicating a clonal relationship. Data from 1 of the laboratories demonstrated a close connection between this clone and impetigo. Sales statistics showed a pronounced increase in the use of fusidic acid ointments in the 0-12 y age group from 1998 onwards. There was, however, no statistically significant correlation between sales of fusidic acid ointments and resistance among S. aureus strains to fusidic acid.