Metal-dependent inhibition of HIV-1 integrase

J Med Chem. 2002 Dec 19;45(26):5661-70. doi: 10.1021/jm0201417.


Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase (HIV-1 IN) is an essential enzyme for effective viral replication. Therefore, IN inhibitors are being sought for chemotherapy against AIDS. We had previously identified a series of salicylhydrazides as potent inhibitors of IN in vitro (Neamati, N.; et al. J. Med. Chem. 1998, 41, 3202-3209.). Herein, we report the design, synthesis, and antiviral activity of three novel mercaptosalicylhydrazide (MSH) derivatives. MSHs were effective against the IN catalytic core domain and inhibited IN binding to HIV LTR DNA. They also inhibited catalytic activities of IN in IN-DNA preassembled complexes. Site-directed mutagenesis and molecular modeling studies suggest that MSHs bind to cysteine 65 and chelate Mg(2+) at the active site of HIV-1 IN. Contrary to salicylhydrazides, the MSHs are 300-fold less cytotoxic and exhibit antiviral activity. They are also active in Mg(2+)-based assays, while IN inhibition by salicylhydrazides is strictly Mn(2+)-dependent. Additionally, in target and cell-based assays, the MSHs have no detectable effect on other retroviral targets, including reverse transcriptase, protease, and virus attachment, and exhibit no detectable activity against human topoisomerases I and II at concentrations that effectively inhibit IN. These data suggest that MSHs are selective inhibitors of HIV-1 IN and may serve as leads for antiviral therapeutics.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antiviral Agents / chemical synthesis*
  • Antiviral Agents / chemistry
  • Antiviral Agents / pharmacology
  • Binding Sites
  • Catalytic Domain
  • Cations, Divalent*
  • Cell Line
  • Chelating Agents / chemical synthesis*
  • Chelating Agents / chemistry
  • Chelating Agents / pharmacology
  • Cysteine / chemistry
  • DNA / chemistry
  • HIV Integrase Inhibitors / chemical synthesis*
  • HIV Integrase Inhibitors / chemistry
  • HIV Integrase Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • HIV-1 / drug effects*
  • Humans
  • Hydrazines / chemical synthesis*
  • Hydrazines / chemistry
  • Hydrazines / pharmacology
  • Magnesium
  • Manganese
  • Models, Molecular
  • Salicylates / chemical synthesis*
  • Salicylates / chemistry
  • Salicylates / pharmacology
  • Structure-Activity Relationship
  • Sulfhydryl Compounds / chemical synthesis*
  • Sulfhydryl Compounds / chemistry
  • Sulfhydryl Compounds / pharmacology
  • Topoisomerase I Inhibitors
  • Topoisomerase II Inhibitors


  • Antiviral Agents
  • Cations, Divalent
  • Chelating Agents
  • HIV Integrase Inhibitors
  • Hydrazines
  • Salicylates
  • Sulfhydryl Compounds
  • Topoisomerase I Inhibitors
  • Topoisomerase II Inhibitors
  • Manganese
  • DNA
  • Magnesium
  • Cysteine