A clinical grade cocktail of cytokines and PGE2 results in uniform maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells: implications for immunotherapy

Vaccine. 2002 Dec 19;20 Suppl 4:A8-A22. doi: 10.1016/s0264-410x(02)00382-1.


Dendritic cells (DCs) can induce tumor- or pathogen-specific T cell responses in humans. We comprehensively compared the clinically available DC maturation stimuli for their ability to promote uniformly mature DCs that elicit higher levels of T cell responses. We compared the standard maturation stimulus, autologous monocyte-conditioned medium (MCM), with a synthetic double stranded RNA (poly I:C), soluble CD40 ligand trimer, and a defined cocktail of cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6) and PGE(2) to promote mature phenotype and function in human monocyte-derived DCs. The cocktail was the most efficient despite the lack of induction of IL-12p70. While these results support the use of the MCM-mimic cocktail in clinical DC immunotherapy trials, the roles of it's individual constituents remain to be completely defined.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Cell Division / immunology
  • Culture Media, Conditioned
  • Cytokines / pharmacology*
  • Dendritic Cells / cytology*
  • Dendritic Cells / metabolism
  • Dinoprostone / pharmacology*
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy*
  • Interferon-gamma / metabolism
  • Interleukin-12 / metabolism
  • Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed
  • Monocytes / cytology*


  • Culture Media, Conditioned
  • Cytokines
  • Interleukin-12
  • Interferon-gamma
  • Dinoprostone