Co-evolving mechanisms of immune clearance and of immune suppression are among the hallmarks of measles. B cells are major targets cells of measles virus (MV) infection. Virus interactions with B cells result both in immune suppression and a vigorous antibody response. Although antibodies fully protect against (re)infection, their importance during the disease and in the presence of a potent cellular response is less well understood. Specific serum IgM appears with onset of rash and confirms clinical diagnosis. After isotype switching, IgG1 develops and confers life-long protection. The most abundant antibodies are specific for the nucleoprotein, but neutralizing and protective antibodies are solely directed against the two surface glycoproteins, the hemagglutinin and the fusion protein. Major neutralizing epitopes have been mapped mainly on the hemagglutinin protein with monoclonal antibodies, producing an increasingly comprehensive map of functional domains.