Although high-dose cyclophosphamide (HD-CTX) is commonly used as a mobilising regimen for autologous peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collection, significant morbidity and insufficient harvesting may complicate the procedure. Alternative regimens and lower doses of cyclophosphamide (CTX) have been investigated as possible ways of overcoming these difficulties. Low-dose CTX (1.5 g/m2) was administered to 102 lymphoma patients as an autologous PBSC mobilising regimen. The collection of 6 x 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg was chosen as the target of the apheresis sessions, whereas 3 x 10(6)/kg were considered the minimum necessary to perform autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) safely. The apheretic sessions were started a median of eight days after CTX administration; a median of two aphereses was required. More than 6 x 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg were collected from 78 patients, between 3 and 6 x 10(6)/kg from 19, and fewer than 3 x 10(6)/kg from 5, two of whom underwent bone marrow harvesting and one a successful second PBSC harvesting session using the same mobilising regimen. Eighty-two patients underwent autografting, six of whom received a second transplant after relapse (five using autologous PBSCs coming from the first apheretic course). Low-dose CTX proved to be a safe and effective regimen for autologous PBSC mobilization and also compared favourably with alternative regimens in terms of the rate of harvesting insufficiency. This does not imply that low-dose CTX is the best mobilising regimen for all patients, and the identification of prognostic factors predicting mobilising potential may help in choosing the best individualised regimen.