The mammalian brain harbors a renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which is independent from the peripheral RAS. Angiotensin II is a well-studied member of the RAS and exerts most of the known angiotensin-mediated effects on fluid and electrolyte homeostasis, autonomic activity, neuroendocrine regulation, and behavior. This review summarizes a mass of compelling new evidence for the biological role of an active (3-8) fragment of angiotensin II, named angiotensin IV. Angiotensin IV binds to a widely distributed binding site in the brain, but which is different from the known angiotensin II receptors AT1 and AT2. Angiotensin IV has been implicated in a number of physiological actions, including the regulation of blood flow, the modulation of exploratory behavior, and processes attributed to learning and memory. Furthermore, angiotensin IV may also be involved in neuronal development. Collectively, the available evidence suggests that angiotensin IV is a potent neuropeptide, involved in a broad range of brain functions.