Positive and negative regulation of T-cell activation through kinases and phosphatases

Biochem J. 2003 Apr 1;371(Pt 1):15-27. doi: 10.1042/BJ20021637.


The sequence of events in T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) signalling leading to T-cell activation involves regulation of a number of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and the phosphorylation status of many of their substrates. Proximal signalling pathways involve PTKs of the Src, Syk, Csk and Tec families, adapter proteins and effector enzymes in a highly organized tyrosine-phosphorylation cascade. In intact cells, tyrosine phosphorylation is rapidly reversible and generally of a very low stoichiometry even under induced conditions due to the fact that the enzymes removing phosphate from tyrosine-phosphorylated substrates, the protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases), have a capacity that is several orders of magnitude higher than that of the PTKs. It follows that a relatively minor change in the PTK/PTPase balance can have a major impact on net tyrosine phosphorylation and thereby on activation and proliferation of T-cells. This review focuses on the involvement of PTKs and PTPases in positive and negative regulation of T-cell activation, the emerging theme of reciprocal regulation of each type of enzyme by the other, as well as regulation of phosphotyrosine turnover by Ser/Thr phosphorylation and regulation of localization of signal components.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • CSK Tyrosine-Protein Kinase
  • Humans
  • Isoenzymes / metabolism
  • Leukocyte Common Antigens / metabolism
  • Lymphocyte Activation / physiology*
  • Lymphocyte Specific Protein Tyrosine Kinase p56(lck) / metabolism
  • Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases / metabolism*
  • Phosphotransferases / metabolism*
  • Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 12
  • Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases / metabolism
  • Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / metabolism
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fyn
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction / physiology
  • ZAP-70 Protein-Tyrosine Kinase
  • src-Family Kinases / metabolism


  • Isoenzymes
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell
  • Phosphotransferases
  • Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • CSK Tyrosine-Protein Kinase
  • FYN protein, human
  • Lymphocyte Specific Protein Tyrosine Kinase p56(lck)
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fyn
  • ZAP-70 Protein-Tyrosine Kinase
  • ZAP70 protein, human
  • src-Family Kinases
  • CSK protein, human
  • Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases
  • ACP1 protein, human
  • Leukocyte Common Antigens
  • PTPN12 protein, human
  • Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 12
  • Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases