Nucleotide replacement at two sites can be directed by modified single-stranded oligonucleotides in vitro and in vivo

Biomol Eng. 2003 Jan;20(1):7-20. doi: 10.1016/s1389-0344(02)00088-6.


Studies involving the alteration of DNA sequences by modified single-stranded oligonucleotides in vitro and in vivo have revealed potential applications for functional genomics. Repair of a replacement, deletion, or insertion mutation has already been achieved with molecules having lengths between 25 and 74 bases. But, other vector parameters still remain to be explored. Here, the position of the single base in the vector directing the alteration was examined and the optimal site was found to be at or near the center of the vector. If that position is staggered 3' or 5', the frequencies of gene repair in vitro decreases. The potential of a single vector to direct two nucleotide changes at a specific site in a target sequence was also examined. Both targeted bases are corrected together at the same frequency if the sites are separated by three bases, but conversion linkage decreases precipitously when the distance is expanded to 15 and 27 nucleotides, respectively. These results suggest that single oligonucleotides can be used to direct nucleotide exchange at two independent sites, a reaction characteristic that may be useful for many genomics applications.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Base Pair Mismatch / genetics
  • Base Pairing / genetics
  • Base Sequence
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Cinnamates*
  • DNA Repair / genetics*
  • DNA, Fungal / genetics
  • DNA, Single-Stranded / genetics*
  • Gene Targeting / methods
  • Genetic Engineering / methods
  • Genetic Vectors / genetics*
  • Hygromycin B / analogs & derivatives*
  • Hygromycin B / metabolism
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutagenesis, Site-Directed / genetics*
  • Oligonucleotides / genetics*
  • Quality Control
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / genetics
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / metabolism


  • Cinnamates
  • DNA, Fungal
  • DNA, Single-Stranded
  • Oligonucleotides
  • Hygromycin B
  • hygromycin A