Experimental animal models of intracerebral hemorrhage

Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2002 Jul;13(3):385-93. doi: 10.1016/s1042-3680(02)00006-2.


Experimental animal ICH models are able to reproduce the overall important pathophysiologic events documented in human ICH, including edema development, markedly reduced metabolism, and tissue pathologic responses. Thus, ICH models serve as an important tool for new understanding of the mechanisms underlying brain injury after an intracerebral bleed. Currently, ongoing studies in several laboratories using these models investigating secondary inflammatory responses as well as intracellular signaling and molecular events are expected to provide therapeutic targets for treating ICH. Future studies should also be directed at one aspect of ICH modeling that has received little attention--potential differences in the hemostatic systems and physical and biochemical properties of clots in animals that might make their susceptibility to aspiration and/or fibrinolytic drugs and rates of rehemorrhage different than in human beings. Also, future efforts should be directed toward the development of a model that mimics the pathophysiologic processes that lead to spontaneous ICH, progression of hemorrhage, and the recurrence of bleeding in human beings. This model would not only provide better understanding of the dynamic events leading to ICH and tissue injury but should also lead to the development of highly effective pharmacologic and surgical treatments.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Brain / blood supply
  • Brain / pathology
  • Brain / physiopathology
  • Cats
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / pathology*
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / physiopathology
  • Cerebrovascular Circulation / physiology
  • Disease Models, Animal*
  • Dogs
  • Haplorhini
  • Rabbits
  • Rats
  • Swine