Children with kidney disease are at risk for serious varicella-related complications. To evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a two-dose regimen of varicella vaccine in children (aged 1-19 years) with chronic renal insufficiency and on dialysis, the Southwest Pediatric Nephrology Study Group (SPNSG) undertook an open-label, multi-center, prospective 3-year clinical trial. Ninety-six patients without history of varicella were enrolled. Fifty (mean age 4.2 years) had no detectable varicella zoster virus (VZV) antibody; 98% seroconverted after the two-dose regimen. At 1, 2, and 3 years' follow-up, all patients studied maintained VZV antibody, including 16 who received a transplant. No significant vaccine-associated adverse events were seen. One subject developed mild varicella (10-50 maculopapular lesions) 16 months post transplant. In multivariate regression analysis, patients vaccinated after age 6 years had VZV antibody levels 73% (95% confidence interval 33%-89%) lower than patients vaccinated before age 6 years after controlling for gender, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and dialysis treatment. Adjusted analysis also showed that VZV antibody levels were lower after kidney transplantation, but this appeared to be a transient phenomenon. In this study, varicella vaccination with a two-dose regimen of varicella vaccine was generally well tolerated and highly immunogenic in children with chronic kidney disease.