Borderline tuberculoid leprosy: an immune reconstitution phenomenon in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected person

Clin Infect Dis. 2003 Jan 1;36(1):e5-6. doi: 10.1086/344446. Epub 2002 Dec 9.


Two months after starting highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART), an individual with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and profound CD4+ T lymphocytopenia developed several erythematous plaques on his face, which were due to borderline tuberculoid leprosy with reversal reaction. The temporal association between the development of these lesions and changes in blood CD4+ lymphocyte count and plasma HIV-1 load observed during HAART strongly suggests that the presentation of leprosy resulted from immune reconstitution.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / immunology
  • Adult
  • Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use
  • Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / adverse effects*
  • CD4 Lymphocyte Count
  • HIV Infections / complications
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy
  • HIV Infections / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Immunity / drug effects
  • Leprosy, Tuberculoid / etiology*
  • Leprosy, Tuberculoid / immunology
  • Male


  • Anti-HIV Agents