Accessible tools for classification of exposure to particles

Chemosphere. 2002 Dec;49(9):1151-62. doi: 10.1016/s0045-6535(02)00245-x.


In this manuscript we describe various alternative tools to estimate exposure to particles. We stress methods that are cost effective and widely available to those throughout the world. The use of surrogate measures arises from the need to estimate exposures of large populations where individual measurements are not feasible, for predictive modeling or to assess exposures rapidly before personal monitoring campaigns can be implemented. In addition, an understanding of the relationship between exposures and surrogate variables can be useful in helping to identify mitigation strategies to reduce exposures. We have separated the various alternative exposure measures by the scales of impact, describing approaches to assess regional, urban and household indoor air quality. In particular, we emphasize scenarios that are relevant to particle exposures that may be experienced in developing countries as a result of domestic energy use for cooking and heating. In all cases the approaches we describe are applicable to large populations as the data collection techniques are relatively inexpensive and specifically applicable on a population basis for risk assessment, epidemiology or to evaluate determinants of exposure and health outcomes. The ultimate use of the assessed exposures will determine the relevance of potential surrogate measures.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Air Pollutants / analysis*
  • Air Pollution, Indoor / analysis*
  • Data Collection / methods
  • Environmental Health*
  • Environmental Monitoring / methods
  • Environmental Monitoring / statistics & numerical data*
  • Epidemiologic Studies
  • Humans
  • Particle Size
  • Risk Assessment


  • Air Pollutants