H19 and Igf2--enhancing the confusion?

Trends Genet. 2003 Jan;19(1):17-23. doi: 10.1016/s0168-9525(02)00004-5.


Genomic imprinting, whereby certain genes are expressed dependent on whether they are maternally or paternally inherited, is restricted to mammals and angiosperm plants. This unusual mode of gene regulation results from the complex interplay between cis-regulatory elements, leading to parent-of-origin-dependent epigenetic modifications and tissue-specific patterns of imprinted gene expression. Many studies of imprinting and imprinted genes have focused on epigenetic effects, such as DNA methylation and chromatin structure. However, it is equally important to explore the interconnected role of regulatory elements at imprinted domains by genetic experiments, including the use of transgenes and deletions.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Chromosome Inversion
  • Endoderm / physiology
  • Enhancer Elements, Genetic
  • Genomic Imprinting* / physiology
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / genetics*
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / physiology
  • Mesoderm / physiology
  • Mice
  • RNA, Long Noncoding
  • RNA, Untranslated* / physiology
  • Sequence Deletion


  • H19 long non-coding RNA
  • RNA, Long Noncoding
  • RNA, Untranslated
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor II