Eukaryotic genes are under the control of regulatory complexes acting through chromatin structure to control gene expression. Here we report the identification of a family of multiprotein corepressor complexes that function through modifying chromatin structure to keep genes silent. The polypeptide composition of these complexes has in common a core of two subunits, HDAC1,2 and BHC110, an FAD-binding protein. A candidate X-linked mental retardation gene and the transcription initiation factor II-I (TFII-I) are components of a novel member of this family of complexes. Other subunits of these complexes include polypeptides associated with cancer causing chromosomal translocations. These findings not only delineate a novel class of multiprotein complexes involved in transcriptional repression but also reveal an unanticipated role for TFII-I in transcriptional repression.