Many human cancers possess a complex chemokine network that may influence the extent and phenotype of the leukocyte infiltrate, angiogenesis, tumor cell growth, survival and migration. Restricted expression of chemokine receptors on leukocytes may allow concise control of cell movement and retention at the tumor site. Restricted and specific expression of chemokine receptors on tumor cells may be involved in the characteristic patterns of metastasis, and may promote tumor cell growth and survival. Detailed study of chemokine and chemokine receptor antagonists in experimental cancer models is warranted. Manipulation of the tumor chemokine network could have therapeutic potential in malignant disease.