Epidemiological studies have suggested an association between low selenium levels and the development of prostate cancer. Human cellular glutathione peroxidase I (hGPX1) is a selenium-dependent enzyme that protects against oxidative damage and its peroxidase activity is a plausible mechanism for cancer prevention by selenium. The GPX1 gene has a GCG repeat polymorphism in exon 1, coding for a polyalanine tract of five to seven alanine residues. To test if the GPX1 GCG repeat polymorphism associates with the risk of young-onset prostate cancer we conducted a case-control study. The GPX1Ala genotypes were determined for 267 prostate cancer cases and 260 control individuals using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with fluorescently labelled primers and an ABI 377 automated genotyper. Associations between specific genotypes and the risk of prostate cancer were examined by logistic regression. We found no significant association between the GPX1 genotypes and prostate cancer. There was however an increased frequency of the GPX1Ala6/Ala6 genotype in the prostate cancer cases compared to controls (OR: 1.67; 95% CI: 0.97-2.87). The result of this study suggests that the GPX1 genotype is unlikely to be associated with the risk of developing prostate cancer.