The profession of dentist exposes them during their work to many burdensome and harmful factors. The irrational posture adopted by dentists during their work causes discomfort and disorders of the musculoskeletal system and the peripheral nervous system. The methods and organization of the work of Polish dentists were evaluated from the aspect of ergonomics, with regard to reported by them painful disorders connected with the musculoskeletal system, with the aim of applying proper methods of treatment and prophylaxis. The study showed that dentists worked in conditions which generally produced disorders of the musculoskeletal system. As a result, the long working time in the course of a day was used irrationally from the point of view of ergonomics, which over the years of work consequently increased the number of disorders of the musculoskeletal system. Dentists must make use of various forms of treatment. The effectiveness of prophylaxis concerning the musculoskeletal system were only partly assessed by the respondents through questionnaire. Most dentists are convinced of the effectiveness of physical activity in prophylaxis which they carry out themselves.