Outpatient antibiotic use and prevalence of antibiotic-resistant pneumococci in France and Germany: a sociocultural perspective

Emerg Infect Dis. 2002 Dec;8(12):1460-7. doi: 10.3201/eid0812.010533.


The prevalence of penicillin-nonsusceptible pneumococci is sharply divided between France (43%) and Germany (7%). These differences may be explained on different levels: antibiotic-prescribing practices for respiratory tract infections; patient-demand factors and health-belief differences; social determinants, including differing child-care practices; and differences in regulatory practices. Understanding these determinants is crucial for the success of possible interventions. Finally, we emphasize the overarching importance of a sociocultural approach to preventing antibiotic resistance in the community.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Ambulatory Care
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Drug Resistance*
  • Drug Utilization / statistics & numerical data*
  • France
  • Germany
  • Humans
  • Practice Patterns, Physicians'*
  • Prevalence
  • Respiratory Tract Infections / drug therapy*
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae / drug effects*


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents