Enhanced gene expression in breast cancer cells in vitro and tumors in vivo

Mol Ther. 2002 Dec;6(6):783-92. doi: 10.1006/mthe.2002.0813.


Gene therapy clinical trials for cancer frequently produce inconsistent results. Some of this variability could result from differences in transcriptional regulation that limit expression of therapeutic genes in specific cancers. Systemic liposomal delivery of a nonviral plasmid DNA showed efficacy in animal models for several cancers. However, we observed large differences in the levels of gene expression from a CMV promoter-enhancer between lung and breast cancers. To optimize gene expression in breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, we created a new promoter-enhancer chimera to regulate gene expression. Serial analyses of gene expression data from a panel of breast carcinomas and normal breast cells predicted that the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) promoter is highly active in breast cancers. Furthermore, GAPDH is up-regulated by hypoxia, which is common in tumors. We added the GAPDH promoter, including the hypoxia enhancer sequences, to our in vivo gene expression plasmid. The novel CMV-GAPDH promoter-enhancer showed up to 70-fold increased gene expression in breast tumors compared to the optimized CMV promoter-enhancer alone. No significant increase in gene expression was observed in other tissues. These data demonstrate tissue-specific effects on gene expression after nonviral delivery and suggest that gene delivery systems may require plasmid modifications for the treatment of different tumor types. Furthermore, expression profiling can facilitate the design of optimal expression plasmids for use in specific cancers.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Breast Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Enhancer Elements, Genetic / genetics*
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
  • Gene Expression*
  • Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (NADP+)(Phosphorylating) / genetics
  • Humans
  • Lung Neoplasms / genetics
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Plasmids / genetics
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics*
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Transfection / methods


  • RNA, Messenger
  • Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (NADP+)(Phosphorylating)