Our previous work on rat hippocampus showed that a loss of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) occurs in the fatty acid composition of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), plasmenylethanolamine (PmE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) with increasing age. The present study investigated whether a DHA-enriched phospholipid dietary supplement could restore DHA levels and cholinergic activity. Male rats were fed a balanced diet containing both linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids until the age of 2, 18 and 21 months. From 18 to 21 months, one subgroup received a diet supplemented with DHA-enriched phospholipids from egg yolk (E-PL), and another a diet with DHA-enriched phospholipids from pig brain (B-PL). Compared to the control diet, the E-PL diet restored the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs: 22:6n-3 and 20:4n-6) in PE and PmE, while enhancing spontaneous and evoked-acetylcholine (Ach) release. The B-PL diet had no effect on PUFAs, but increased basal extracellular levels of Ach in 21-month-old rats as compared to the age-matched control. Our results show that supplementation with DHA-enriched egg PL can enhance Ach release and correct PUFA composition.