Background: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a recognized complication after percutaneous interventions (PCI). We sought to determine the impact of gender on incidence and clinical outcome of CIN.
Methods and results: Of a total 8,628 patients who underwent PCI, there were 1,431 (16.5%) who developed CIN (defined as > 25% rise in creatinine after PCI). Patients were followed clinically for one year. CIN was present in 23.6% of female versus 17.4% of male patients (p < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed that female gender (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.25 1.60; p < 0.0001), pre-PCI chronic renal failure (CRF) (OR= 1.8, 95% CI = 1.53 2.10, p < 0.0001), diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.34 1.70; p < 0.0001), age (OR = 1.01, 95% CI = 1.01 1.02, p < 0.0001), and hypertension (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.06 1.36, p = 0.0035) were independent predictors of CIN. Clinical outcomes after CIN were examined in patients with or without CRF. Among patients without CRF who developed CIN, females (n = 465) had higher rates of one-year mortality, and MACE comparing to males (n = 710) without CRF (14% vs. 10% mortality, 36% vs. 30% MACE; p = 0.05 and 0.06, respectively). In patients with CRF who developed CIN, we found no significant gender differences in one-year clinical events (37% vs. 36% mortality, 42% vs. 45% MACE; p = 0.8 and 0.6, respectively). By multivariate analysis only baseline CRF, diabetes, age, functional NYHA IV class were identified as independent predictors of one-year mortality in patients with CIN after PCI.
Conclusions: Female gender is an independent predictor of CIN development after PCI and a marker of worse 1-year mortality after CIN in patients without baseline CRF. After CIN is developed, pre-PCI CRF, diabetes mellitus, age, severe heart failure (not gender) are independent predictors of one-year mortality.