Five cases are reported in which malignant mesothelioma of the pleura and hepatocellular carcinoma co-existed in the same patient. The group included four men and one woman, aged between 58 and 86 years. The diagnosis was established at necropsy. In one case the association was clinically suspected. All mesotheliomas were asbestos-related. Liver cirrhosis co-existed in four cases, two of them positive for HCV markers. A lot of elements suggest that the above association is not a fortuitous coincidence. In particular, asbestos could favour liver cancerogenesis by inducing immune impairment.