Wild oat (Avena fatua L.) populations resistant to herbicides that inhibit acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase; EC 188.8.131.52) represent an increasingly important weed control problem. The objective of this study was to determine the ACCase mutation responsible for herbicide resistance in a well-studied wild oat biotype (UMI). A 2039-bp region encompassing the carboxybiotin and acetyl-CoA binding domains of multifunctional plastidic ACCase was analyzed. DNA sequences representing three plastidic ACCase gene loci were isolated from both the resistant UMI and a herbicide-susceptible biotype, consistent with the hexaploid nature of wild oat. Only one nonsynonymous point mutation was found among the resistant wild oat sequences, inferring an isoleucine to leucine substitution. The position of this substitution corresponds to residue 1769 of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plastidic ACCase (GenBank accession No. AF029895). Analysis of an F2 population derived from a cross between a herbicide-resistant and a susceptible biotype confirmed co-segregation of herbicide resistance with the mutated ACCase. We conclude that the isoleucine to leucine mutation is responsible for herbicide resistance in UMI wild oat based on a comparison of the substitution site across species and ACCase types. While isoleucine is conserved among plastidic ACCases of herbicide-susceptible grasses, leucine is found in plastidic and cytosolic forms of multifunctional herbicide-resistant ACCase.